In the last decade, high brightness and full colorization have been the frontier topics in the research of LED materials and device technology. Ultra High Brightness (UHB) refers to LEDs with luminous intensities up to or exceeding 100mcd, also known as Candela (cd) grade LEDs. The development of high-brightness A1GaInP and InGaN LEDs is progressing rapidly, and has reached the performance level that conventional materials GaA1As, GaAsP, and GaP cannot achieve. In 1991, Toshiba Corporation of Japan and HP Corporation of the United States developed InGaA1P620nm orange ultra-high brightness LED. In 1992, InGaA1p590nm yellow ultra-high brightness LED was put into practical use. In the same year, Toshiba developed the InGaA1P573nm yellow-green ultra-high brightness LED with a normal light intensity of 2 cd. In 1994, Japan Nichia Corporation developed InGaN 450nm blue (green) color ultra-high brightness LED. At this point, the three primary colors of red, green, blue, and orange and yellow LEDs required for color display have reached the candela-level luminous intensity, achieving ultra-high brightness and full color, and making the outdoor full color of the luminous tube. The display becomes a reality. China's development of LED started in the 1970s, and the industry appeared in the 1980s. There are more than 100 enterprises in the country, and 95% of the manufacturers are engaged in post-package production. The required dies are almost all imported from abroad. Through several "five-year plan" technical transformation, technical research, the introduction of foreign advanced equipment and some key technologies, China's LED production technology has taken a step forward.
First, the performance of ultra-high brightness LED:
Ultra-high brightness red A1GaAsLED has higher luminous efficiency than GaAsP-GaPLED, and the lumen efficiency of transparent liner low (TS) A1GaAsLED (640nm) is close to 10lm/w, which is 10 times larger than red GaAsP-GaPLED. Ultra-high brightness InGaAlPLED provides the same color as GaAsP-GaPLED: green yellow (560nm), light green yellow (570nm), yellow (585nm), light yellow (590nm), orange (605nm), light red (625nm deep red (640nm) The transparent substrate A1GaInPLED luminous efficiency is compared with other LED structures and incandescent light sources. The InGaAlPLED absorption substrate (AS) has a lumen efficiency of 101m/w, a transparent substrate (TS) of 201m/w, and a wavelength of 590-626nm. The lumen efficiency is 10-20 times higher than that of GaAsP-GaPLED; 2-4 times higher than GaAsP-GaPLED in the wavelength range of 560-570. Ultra-high brightness InGaN LED provides blue and green light with wavelength The range of blue is 450-480nm, blue green is 500nm, green is 520nm; its lumen efficiency is 3-151m/w. The current lumen efficiency of ultra-high brightness LED has exceeded that of incandescent lamp with filter, which can replace power 1w Incandescent lamps, and LED arrays can replace incandescent lamps up to 150W. For many applications, incandescent lamps use filters to get red, orange, green, and blue, while ultra-high-brightness LEDs are available. The same color. In recent years, AlGaInP materials and InGaN materials manufacturing Ultra-high-brightness LEDs combine multiple (red, blue, green) ultra-high-brightness LED chips to achieve a variety of colors without filters, including red, orange, yellow, green, and blue. It has already surpassed the incandescent lamp and is close to the fluorescent lamp. The brightness of the light is higher than 1000mcd, which can meet the needs of outdoor all-weather and full-color display. The LED color large screen can express the sky and the ocean to realize three-dimensional animation. A new generation of red and green, Blue ultra-high brightness LEDs have achieved unprecedented performance.
Second, the application of ultra-high brightness LED:
Car signal indication: The car indicator lights are mainly the direction lights, tail lights and brake lights on the outside of the car; the interior of the car is mainly the illumination and display of various instruments. Ultra-high-brightness LEDs for automotive lighting have many advantages over traditional incandescent lamps and have a broad market in the automotive industry. LEDs are able to withstand strong mechanical shocks and vibrations. The average working life MTBF is several orders of magnitude higher than incandescent bulbs, far higher than the working life of the car itself, so the LED brake lights can be packaged as a whole without having to consider maintenance. Transparent substrates Al.GaAs and AlInGaPLEDs have a relatively high lumen efficiency compared to incandescent bulbs with filters, so that LED brake lamps and directional lamps can operate at lower drive currents. Typical drive currents are only incandescent. 1/4 of the light, which reduces the distance the car uses for travel. The lower electric power also reduces the size and weight of the car's internal wiring system, while also reducing the internal temperature rise of the integrated LED beacon, allowing the lens and housing to use low temperature resistant plastic. The response time of the LED brake light is 100 ns, which is shorter than the response time of the incandescent lamp, which leaves the driver with more reaction time, thus improving the safety of the driving. The illuminance and color of the exterior lights of the car are clearly defined. Although the interior lighting display of a car is not controlled by the relevant government departments like an external signal light, the manufacturer of the car has requirements for the color and illumination of the LED. GaPLEDs have long been used in the car, and ultra-high-brightness AlGaInP and InGaN LEDs will replace the incandescent lamps in the car because they meet the manufacturer's requirements in terms of color and illumination. From the price point of view, although LED lights are more expensive than incandescent lamps, the price of the two systems is not significantly different from the overall system. With the development of ultra-high brightness TSAlGaAs and AlGaInPLED, the price has been continuously reduced in recent years, and the reduction will be even greater in the future.
Traffic signal indication: replacing incandescent lamps with ultra-high-brightness LEDs, which are used in traffic lights, warning lights and sign lights all over the world, the market is broad, and the demand is growing rapidly. According to the statistics of the US Department of Transportation in 1994, there are 260,000 crossroads installed in the United States, and at least 12 red, yellow, and blue-green signal lights at each intersection. There are also a number of additional transition signs and crosswalk warning lights across the road at many intersections. In this way, each intersection can have 20 signal lights and must be illuminated at the same time. From this, it can be inferred that there are about 135 million traffic lights in the United States. At present, the use of ultra-high-brightness LEDs to replace traditional incandescent lamps has achieved significant results in reducing power consumption. In Japan, the annual power consumption on traffic lights is about 1 million kilowatts. After replacing incandescent lamps with ultra-high brightness LEDs, the power consumption is only 12%.
Traffic lights The competent authorities of each country shall formulate corresponding specifications, specifying the color of the signal, the minimum illumination intensity, the pattern of the spatial distribution of the beam, and the requirements for the installation environment. Although these requirements are written in incandescent lamps, they are basically applicable to the currently used ultra-high brightness LED traffic lights. Compared with incandescent lamps, LED traffic lights have a long working life, generally up to 10 years. Considering the impact of harsh outdoor environment, the life expectancy is reduced to 5-6 years. At present, the ultra-high brightness AlGaInP red, orange and yellow LEDs have been industrialized and the price is relatively cheap. If the module consisting of red ultra-high brightness LEDs replaces the traditional red incandescent traffic signal head, the red incandescent lamp can be suddenly disabled to safety. The impact is minimal. The general LED traffic signal module consists of several sets of LED single lamps connected in series. Taking a 12-inch red LED traffic signal module as an example, in 3-9 sets of LED single lamps connected in series, the number of LED single lamps in each group is 70-75. (a total of 210-675LED single lamp), when one LED single lamp fails, only one set of signals will be affected, and the remaining groups will be reduced to 2/3 (67%) or 8/9 (89%). It does not invalidate the entire signal head like an incandescent lamp.
The main problem of the LED traffic signal module is that the introduction is still higher. Taking the 12-inch TS-AlGaAs red LED traffic signal module as an example, it was first used in 1994, and its cost is 350$, and the performance was better in 1996. The 12-inch AlGaInPLED traffic signal module costs $200.
It is expected that the price of the InGaN blue-green LED traffic signal module will be comparable to AlGaInP in the future. The incandescent traffic signal head is low in cost but consumes a lot of electricity. The 12-inch diameter incandescent traffic signal head consumes 150W, and the traffic warning light that crosses the sidewalk is 67W. According to calculation, each The incandescent signal light at an intersection is 18133KWh per year, equivalent to an annual electricity bill of 1450$; however, the LED traffic signal module is very energy-efficient, and each 8-12-inch red LED traffic signal module consumes 15W and 20W, the LED mark at the intersection of the intersection can be displayed with the arrow switch. The power consumption is only 9w. According to calculation, each intersection can save 9916KWh per year, which is equivalent to saving 793$ per year. According to the average cost of each LED traffic signal module of 200$, the red LED traffic signal module only uses its saved electricity costs, and after three years, it can recover the initial cost cost and start to receive economic returns continuously. Therefore, the AlGaInPLED traffic information module is currently used. Although the cost is obvious, it is cost-effective in the long run.
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