Today, due to the global warming effect of the global warming, the human ecological environment is deteriorating. According to recent UN reports, the problems caused by rising temperatures will have a widespread impact on the planet in this century. If the global average temperature rises by 2 degrees Celsius in the 1980s and 1990s, nearly 30% of the organisms will face the threat of extinction. This climate change will also expose billions of people on the planet to water and food shortages, and the frequency of natural disasters such as floods, droughts and typhoons will increase. Some experts pointed out that global warming will also cause icebergs and glaciers to melt, leading to the rise of the ocean level, which will cause many island countries and coastal cities to suffer from â€œdestructionâ€. Taking effective measures to control greenhouse gas emissions has become a top priority for mankind.
It is precisely because of humanity's high regard for the global warming effect and environmental protection that the concept of "green lighting" has entered our lives. â€œGreen lightingâ€ originated in the 1990s. As the world faces energy and ecological crises, saving energy and protecting the environment have become the consensus. In January 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first proposed the implementation of "GreenLights" and the concept of "GreenLightsProé„„gram", which was quickly supported by the United Nations and was influenced by many developed and developing countries. Value. Countries responded positively and adopted corresponding policies and measures to promote the implementation of green lighting projects. The concept of â€œgreen lightingâ€ has thus gained worldwide recognition.
The so-called "green lighting" means the use of scientific lighting design, the use of high efficiency, long life, safety and stable performance of lighting products, ultimately achieving high efficiency, comfort, safety, economy, environmental benefits and improve people's physical and mental health and reflect Modern and civilized lighting system. In November 1993, Chinaâ€™s State Economic and Trade Commission started the Chinese green lighting project and officially included the national plan in 1996. Due to its unique and rich optical properties, rare earths have become the supporting elements for the implementation of green lighting projects in countries around the world.
Promote rare earth green lighting to become a development trend
The special atomic structure of rare earth elements makes them extremely rich in electronic energy level transitions and optical properties, and has a very wide range of applications in the optoelectronics industry. The rare earth element can be used as a matrix component of a fluorescent material, and can also be used as an activator, coactivator, sensitizer or dopant of a fluorescent material. Luminescent materials made of rare earths are generally collectively referred to as rare earth luminescent (fluorescent) materials.
There are many kinds of rare earth luminescent materials, and four major products have been formed: phosphors for information display, trichromatic phosphors for lamps, rare earth metal halides and long afterglow phosphors. Among them, the rare earth fluorescent lamp powder used in lamps has the largest amount and consumes the most rare earth, and the contribution to energy conservation and environmental protection is also the most prominent.
The use of electric light source illumination is a major advance in the history of human development. From 1880, Edison invented incandescent lamps and used tungsten incandescent lamps for hundreds of years. The incandescent light color is close to daylight, and the color rendering is good. The circular bulb is also very convenient to use. But the Achilles heel of incandescent lamps is that the light conversion efficiency is very low. Only about 15% of the energy consumed is converted into visible light energy, and the rest is lost by heat energy, causing a serious waste of energy. Since the 1970s, with rare earth phosphors and rare earth trichromatic energy-saving lamps, both compact rare-earth fluorescent lamps and straight-tube rare-earth fluorescent lamps are about 80% more energy efficient than incandescent lamps, and their color rendering is straighter than that of halogen powder. The tube fluorescent lamp is good, and can be directly used on the original incandescent lamp socket, which is an ideal alternative to incandescent lamps.
Nowadays, the world is setting off a wave of replacing traditional incandescent lamps with rare earth energy-saving lamps. Because rare earth energy-saving lamps only need 20% of the electricity consumption of incandescent lamps to achieve the same lighting effect. Japan, South Korea, etc. have long been promoting the use of rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, North America and Australia have banned the use of incandescent lamps this year. The recently concluded spring EU summit reached an agreement to require the EU countries to phase out incandescent lamps and replace them with rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps. It can be said that the elimination of incandescent lamps on a global scale and the promotion of the use of rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps are surging. 2007 can even be called the epoch-making "Rear Earth Green Lighting Year".
The development history of rare earth green lighting in China
In the 1970s, the Dutch company Philips invented rare earth trichromatic phosphors and compact rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps, which were quickly promoted worldwide. In 1980, China developed a rare earth trichromatic phosphor from Fudan University. In 1981, it began to produce compact rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps from Shanghai Yuelong Chemical Plant, Shanghai Huguang Lamps Factory and Shanghai Special Light Factory.
China's rare earth energy-saving lamp industry is a new type of lighting industry with the rapid rise of the rare earth industry. Since China has a unique advantage in rare earth resources with the largest reserves in the world, the Party Central Committee and the State Council leaders have always attached great importance to the development of the rare earth industry. Under the specific organization of Deng Xiaoping's central leadership and the specific organization of Vice Premier Fang Yi, China has vigorously carried out research on the comprehensive utilization of rare earth resources, and has made rare earth luminescent materials and promotion of rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps one of the key tasks. To this end, in 1990, the National Rare Earth Phosphors and Lamps Collaboration Network under the direct leadership of the State Council Rare Earth Leading Group Office was established to organize and coordinate the development and production of national rare earth phosphors for lamps, and to promote the optimization of lamp making technology and equipment. It has been formulated with rare earth phosphor standards for lamps and has done a lot of fruitful work, playing an important role in the technological progress and industrial development of China's rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps.
In 1986, the annual output of rare earth trichromatic phosphors for lamps in China was only 1.2 tons, and the annual output of rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps was about 1 million. At that time, the rare earth fluorescent powder and the rare earth energy-saving lamp used in the lamp had a series of problems such as unstable phosphor quality, single energy-saving lamp tube, backward lighting technology and equipment, use of magnetic ballast, low service life, and energy saving.
With the joint efforts of the whole industry, China's lamp rare earth phosphors and rare earth energy-saving lamps production technology has continuously made breakthroughs, successfully developed the industrial chain, from extensive to intensive, large-scale transformation, greatly improving product quality and performance. Price ratio. At present, the product qualification rate of compact fluorescent lamps in China has increased from 50% in 1998 to over 95%, the average luminous efficiency has increased by 5-8 lumens per watt, and the average life expectancy has increased by 4,000 hours. The strength of domestic lighting enterprises has increased, and emerged. A group of well-known brands. The rare earth luminescent materials for lamps have been developed in the direction of multiple varieties, multiple specifications, multi-directional, deep levels and full series. In 2006, the annual output of tri-color rare earth phosphors for lamps in China reached more than 3,200 tons, and the annual output of rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps reached 2.2 billion, an increase of several thousand times compared with 1986, both of which have already ranked first in the world. For more than 20 years, China's rare earth green lighting industry has achieved leapfrog development.
The state has always included the development of rare earth energy-saving lamps into key research projects. Through the supervision and management of market standardization and market regulation by the rare earth industry and the lighting industry, the application market of high-efficiency lighting fixtures such as compact rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps and rare earth metal halide lamps is expanding day by day. The concept of â€œgreen lightingâ€ is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. The hat of â€œenergy-saving lamps and energy-saving and not saving moneyâ€ has made the rare earth green lighting enter a virtuous circle of sustainable development with remarkable results.
Due to the large energy gap, China's power supply has been tight in recent years. Lighting electricity consumption accounts for about 12% of total power generation. Therefore, the development and promotion of the application of rare earth fluorescent lamps to save lighting power has great energy saving potential. Statistics show that the use of incandescent lamps in China is about 3 billion. If half of the incandescent lamps in the country are changed into rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamps, the annual electricity consumption will be about 64 billion kWh, which is equivalent to about 16 blocks. The annual power generation of 18 750,000-kilowatt power plants can greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the economic and environmental benefits are considerable.
On June 17, 2006, the National Development and Reform Commission held a "China Green Lighting Project Implementation Results Press Conference" in Beijing, summarizing the achievements of China's green lighting project in the past 10 years. It was pointed out that between 1996 and 2005, China's green lighting project saved 59 billion kWh of electricity, equivalent to reducing carbon dioxide (carbon) emissions by 17 million tons and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 530,000 tons. At the same time, it is proposed that the national â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ will be regarded as one of the ten key energy-saving projects in the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period. It is important to promote the rare earth trichromatic fluorescent lamps in public facilities such as streets, wide-ranging sports venues, buildings, and residential buildings. Efficient energy-saving lighting system, and automatic transformation of high-efficiency lighting electrical product production line to ensure the sustainable development of China's green lighting project.
The energy-saving lamps produced in China are also widely used for export. Taking 2003 as an example, China produced 1.05 billion energy-saving lamps that year, and the domestic sales volume was only 356 million, accounting for about two-thirds of exports. Therefore, the development of China's rare earth energy-saving fluorescent lamp industry not only plays an important role in China's implementation of rare earth green lighting and energy conservation and environmental protection, but also contributes greatly to the world's green lighting project.
Heater is a combination of fans, motors and air heaters combined unit. Applicable to all types of workshops, when the air is free of dust and flammable or explosive gas, can be used as a circulating air heating. Heater can be used independently as a heating, generally used to supplement the lack of heat sink parts or the use of radiators as the duty of heating, the remaining heat load borne by the heater.
(1) horizontal blower: indoor air from the side of the inhalation, the heat exchanger after the heat, the horizontal direction. The jet has a certain range, so that the heating zone is fully blended, the temperature is evenly mixed.
(2) top blower fan: axial fan placed in the bottom of the unit, the air from the side of the heater into the air through the standing heat exchanger, and then sent down. In order to make the jet face to be discharged downward, a guide vane for diffusion is provided at the outlet of the fan.
(3) floor heaters: such units of the large amount of air, send hot air range far, can afford a larger area of heating. When running, the noise is large. Applicable to the factory building heating.
The advantage of heater heating is :
(1) single machine heat supply, in the same heat load, the number of end devices used less;
(2) small heaters can be hanging, do not take up the building area, large heaters floor installation, covers an area of limited;
(3) start heating up fast.
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