At the moment of rapid development of the power grid, the automation of distribution of smart grids has become an irresistible trend. It not only strongly promotes the development of electric power industry, but also plays an important role in improving the efficiency of power grid operation. This paper studies the distribution automation transformation in smart grid. Firstly, it expounds the structure and technical indicators of the corresponding system, summarizes the development of smart grid distribution automation, and analyzes the relationship between smart grid and distribution automation. The focus is on the transformation, including: main station reconstruction, sub-station transformation and terminal transformation, and finally the transformation efficiency is analyzed.
1 Structure and technical indicators of distribution automation system
According to the capacity of the power distribution system, the distribution automation system can be divided into three different types: large distribution automation system, medium distribution automation system and small distribution automation system. Usually, when selecting the type of distribution automation system, it needs to be combined with the actual requirements and objectives as well as the future development scale. Based on the basic principles of economy, scalability, safety and stability, Figure 1 shows the typical Hierarchical diagram of the distribution automation system. Among them, its most outstanding advantage is that it has better flexibility. It can be constructed in the early stage of construction with the type of medium-sized distribution automation system, and the corresponding main station, sub-station and terminal are installed. When it is necessary to expand the power distribution system, the number of primary station systems can be appropriately increased, and one of the primary stations is used as a central station. According to the different hierarchical structure, the system can be divided into three levels, wherein the structure below the second layer can be appropriately expanded as needed.
In the distribution network, the status of the automation system is unquestionable. Therefore, the requirements are high. The corresponding switchgear must not only meet the relevant standards, but also meet the requirements of the corresponding management system. Note: The technical indicators of the distribution automation system can be found in the relevant standard documents.
2 Development of smart grid distribution automation
In the development of China's power grid, the development of smart grid distribution automation has gone through three stages, and the following is a detailed analysis.
2. 1 Matching of switchgear of power distribution system At this stage, the main power distribution equipment has not yet established a complete computer network system, and the communication network is also missing. The use of reclosers, etc., will affect the function of the power distribution system. When a fault occurs in the system, the power distribution system can realize the isolation and maintenance of the fault area through the cooperation of the corresponding power distribution switch devices, thus ensuring the The user's power supply is normal and stable. In the cooperation of automatic switchgear, the automation of the distribution system has a very positive effect, but it is worth noting that this kind of automation also has certain limitations, mainly reflected in: in the process of implementing maintenance automation, it is necessary to carry out regular equipment. Maintenance, while this maintenance lacks the safety and stability of automation.
2. 2 Distribution communication network In this stage, the most prominent feature is: the application of the distribution system communication network and the background computer network; it is a qualitative leap for the automation function of the distribution system. In the case of normal operation of the power distribution system, the background computer network application can still achieve automatic control, which largely ensures the safe operation of the power distribution system. In addition, the application communication network also contributes to remote maintenance of the power distribution system.
2. 3 automatic control system in the automatic control phase of the power distribution system, mainly to achieve the corresponding automatic control function addition; in the context of the continuous development of computer technology, the basis of switching equipment with automation and background computer network application The addition of the automatic control function implemented on. It not only realizes the automation of the normal operation of the power distribution system, but also realizes the automation of remote control.
3 distribution automation transformation content
As a systematic and huge project, the automation transformation of the distribution network system involves the following three aspects.
3. 1 Main station automation system transformation In the main station system, it mainly includes three subsystems, namely: 1 distribution SCADA master station system. In this system, the main front server is one of the RTu servers; when this server fails, the system will automatically configure a server to replace the failed main front server, thus ensuring a strong guarantee. The normal operation of the system. These functions are all implemented by nap. In the substation server, the data signal can be sent to the main front-end server through the corresponding switch. These data signals are received by the dater and stored locally to realize real-time data sharing. Through the acceptance of datsrv, the child pre-server can accept the data information and realize the sharing of real-time data. 2 Distribution Application Software Subsystem DAS. Under normal circumstances, after the automation transformation of the distribution network is completed, in order to meet the technical requirements of the system, online debugging of the system fault recovery diagnosis function is required, that is, the automation function of the distribution network; before commissioning, it is necessary to ensure the corresponding conditions. Correct, including: the master station configuration library has been completed, the communication between the system master station and the child station is normal, and the corresponding function in the FTU is normal. 3 distribution management system DMS. For the power distribution system, its main function is: AM/FM/GIS function. It effectively combines spatial data processing, computer technology and power system technology. It is mainly used for the analysis and display of spatial positioning data of power equipment. It can also analyze the corresponding attribute data and belong to the database management system. Among them, AM stands for automatic drawing system, FM means equipment management system, GIS is geographic information system; combines the three to form the DMS basic platform, and establishes the corresponding DMS database, which can provide shared data to subsystem; analysis Its main advantages include: less redundancy of data, uniformity of data, and a user-friendly interface. In addition, with the application of GIS system, the power system has obtained a new form of expression, with intuitive features and stronger space management capabilities.
3. 2 Substation automation system transformation Many equipments in the distribution network need to be monitored, and the scope involved is relatively wide. It is difficult to directly connect the monitoring equipment to the power distribution main station. Therefore, an intermediate level is required, namely: an electronic station system. The electronic station can realize data collection and monitoring functions. In addition, the real-time data transmitted to the communication processor of the power distribution main station can also be monitored in real time, which not only saves the trunk channel, but also inherits the automation result smoothly for the distribution automation master station.
3. 3 Terminal system automation transformation In terms of urban distribution network, the main task of its automation terminal is to realize real-time monitoring of various types of equipment, such as: on-column switches, opening and closing stations and distribution transformers, etc. The functions of telemetry, remote control and remote adjustment, as well as the identification and control of faults, cooperate with the primary station and the substation to realize the detection and optimization of the grid operation, reconstruct the network and isolate the fault. In the automation terminal of the substation's opening and closing station, the fiber optic dual Ethernet is used; in the on-column automation terminal, the wireless mode such as R2485/232 is adopted, or the optical fiber is used to access the D25 data concentrator. This configuration effectively combines the D25 multi-function electronic device to achieve flexible configuration, which is very suitable for applications that may be expanded in the future. In this system, according to the relevant functional requirements, the system's transformation plan has the following: 1 data concentrator. 2 Open and close the automation terminal. 3 column automation terminal.
4 grid distribution automation reliability and transformation benefits
As a high-tech work, the automatic operation of the distribution network should not only pay attention to the characteristics of the distribution network, but also the instability of personnel and lines. In addition, due to the fast update of the software and hardware of the computer, management The process of maintaining distribution network automation is complex. Relying on numerous digital terminal devices and transmission channels of communication networks, the distribution network automation system realizes the functions of statistics, analysis and update of data. In order to ensure its stable operation, it is necessary to carry out scientific and reasonable maintenance work on a regular basis. Specifically, it includes: operation and maintenance of terminal equipment, operation and maintenance of communication optical cables, and operation and maintenance of hardware such as computers.
After realizing the automation transformation of the distribution network, the operation status of the power grid can be monitored in real time, which greatly improves the safety and stability of the power grid dispatching, and can effectively prevent the blind adjustment state caused by the unclear information transmission; Other functions are also implemented, such as automated diagnosis of line faults, automatic isolation of fault points, and automated recovery of fault area power. After the power distribution automation transformation of the power grid, the workload of power distribution repair has been greatly reduced, and the corresponding reaction speed has been greatly improved. After preliminary calculation, the area after the power distribution automation transformation has reduced the average power outage time by 0.07h/household per year, and the power supply can be considered as high as 99.9%; the social and economic benefits have been greatly improved, in addition, A group of professional high-quality power grid maintenance personnel has been trained to lay a solid foundation for the comprehensive realization of a strong smart grid.
This paper expounds the structure and technical indicators of the distribution automation system, analyzes the development of smart grid distribution automation, and focuses on the transformation, including: main station reconstruction, substation transformation and terminal transformation, and finally analyzes the transformation efficiency. . Through the transformation of smart grid distribution automation, the power quality of the grid has been improved, the power outage time has been reduced, the recovery speed has also increased, and the social responsibility of the grid enterprise has been implemented.
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